" Private-sector R&I investments remain underdeveloped and have seen a continuous decline since 2000. The existing measures to promote private R&I investments are not fully commensurable with the challenges faced by local innovative enterprises, multinationals and start-ups. Moreover, there is visible mismatch between the skills needed by the knowledge market and the qualifications provided by academia that must be addressed. It is worth considering whether or not the system could benefit from replacing the current ‘one-size-fits- all’ interventions by targeted ones for innovative enterprises with proven successful track records. Moreover, the current unclear and contradictory provisions of the national framework of intellectual property rights make large companies somewhat reluctant to invest in innovation. The finalisation of the Employees Patents Law and the implementation guidelines are essential steps towards increasing foreign direct investments for innovative activities in Romania. Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning a relatively recent, bottom-up trend in the country indicating a concentration of innovation resources around economic sectors, such as automotive or IT, or major research infrastructures in fields such as life sciences or nuclear physics, such as:
Cluj Innovation City, a business-driven cluster focused around four sectors: IT, energy, environment, and healthcare;
European Light Infrastructure in Măgurele, a promising scientific-driven cluster;
The Danube-Danube Delta-Black Sea Research Institute, which builds on the Danube Delta’s unique natural laboratory and, in addition, is strategically driven, as part of the Danube Strategy. "